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典型高考英语陷阱题详解•动词时态

2018-03-06 17:27:50 |

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1. "I _____ his telephone number." "I have his number, but I ____ to bring my phone book."
A. forget, forget B. forgot, forgot
C. forget, forgot D. forgot, forget
【陷阱】容易误选A,认为"忘记"是现在的事。
【分析】仔细体会一下对话的语境:第一个人说"我忘记他的电话号码了",这个"忘记"应该是现在的情况,即现在忘记了,要不然就没有必要同对方说此话了,故第一空应填forget;第二个人说"我有他的号码,但我忘记带电话本了",这个"忘记"应该是过去的情况,即过去忘记带电话本,所以现在电话本不在身上(注意句中的转折连词 but),故第二空应填 forgot,即答案选应C.请再看一例:
- Oh, I ______ where he lives.
- Don't you carry your address book?
No, I ______ to bring it.
A. forget, forget B. forgot, forgot
C. forget, forgot D. forgot, forget
答案选C,理由同上。
2. I had hoped to see her off at the station, but I _____ too busy.
A. was B. had been
C. would be D. would have been
【陷阱】容易误选B或D,认为前句用了had hoped,所以此句谓语要用B或D与之呼应。
【分析】但正确答案为A,前一句谓语用had hoped,表示的是过去未曾实现的想法或打算,可以译为"本想",而后一句说"我太忙",这是陈述过去的一个事实,所以要用一般过去时。请做以下类似试题(答案均为A):
(1) We had hoped to catch the 10:20 train, but _____ it was gone.
A. found B. had found
C. would find D. would have found
(2) We had hoped that you would be able to visit us, but you _____.
A. didn't B. hadn't
C. needn't D. would not have
(3) We had wanted to come to see him, but we ____ no time.
A. had B. had had
C. would have D. would have had
(4) I had expected to come over to see you last night, but someone ______ and I couldn't get away.
A. called B. had called
C. would call D. would have called
(5) The traffic accident wouldn't have happened yesterday, but the driver _______ really careless.
A. was B. is
C. were D. had been
3. Dear me! Just _____ at the time! I _____ no idea it was so late.
A. look, have B. looking, had
C. look, had D. looking, have
【陷阱】此题容易误选D,认为第一空用现在分词表伴随,第二空填 have 的一般现在时,以保持与前面时态的一致性。
【分析】其实,此题应选C,第一空应填 look, 因为这是祈使句的谓语;第二空应填 had,因为前一句说"看看时间吧",这一看当然知道了现在很迟的情形,"不知道这么迟了"显然应是"过去"的事,故应用一般过去时态,许多同学由于忽略这一隐含的语境而误选。
4. "Your phone number again? I _____ quite catch it." "It's 4331577."
A. didn't B. couldn't
C. don't D. can't
【陷阱】此题容易误选C,认为此处要用一般现在时态,表示现在"没听清对方的话"。
【分析】其实,此题答案应选A,根据上文的语境"请把你的电话号码再说一遍好吗?"可知"没听清对方的电话号码"应是在说此话以前,故应用一般过去时态。请看以下类似试题:
(1)"Mr Smith isn't coming tonight." "But he _____."
A. promises B. promised
C. will promise D. had promised
答案选B,"他答应(要来)"应发生在过去。
(2)"Hey, look where you are going!" "Oh, I'm terribly sorry. _____."
A. I'm not noticing B. I wasn't noticing
C. I haven't noticed D. I don't notice
答案选B,"我没注意"是对方提醒之前的事,现经对方一提醒,当然注意到了。
(3)"Oh it's you! I ________ you." "I've had my hair cut."
A. didn't realize B. haven't realized
C. didn't recognize D. don't recognized
答案选C."没认出是你"是说此话之前的事,说此话时显然已经认出了对方。
(4)"What's her new telephone number?" "Oh, I _____."
A. forget B. forgot
C. had forgotten D. am forgetting
此题应选A,从语境上看,"忘记"的时间应是现在,即指现在不记得了。
(5)"Since you've agreed to go, why aren't you getting ready?" "But I ______ that you would have me start at once."
A. don't realize B. didn't realize
C. hadn't realized D. haven't realized
答案选B."没意识到"是对方提醒之前的事。
(6)"It's twelve o'clock, I think I must be off now." "Oh, really? I ______ it at all."
A. don't realize B. haven't realized
C. didn't realize D. hadn't realized
答案选C."没意识到"是在听到的话之前的事。
5. Mr Smith ______ a book about China last year but I don't know whether he has finished it.
A. has written B. wrote
C. had written D. was writing
【陷阱】容易误选B或C.
【分析】此题应选D,这是由 but I don't know whether he has finished it 这一句话的语境决定的,全句意为"史密斯先生去年在写一本书,但我不知道他现在是否写完了"。有的同学可能由于受 last year的影响而误选B.但若选B,则句子前半部分的意思则变为"史密斯先生去年写了一本书",既然是"写了",那么这与下文的"但我不知道他现在是否写完了"相矛盾。
6. He has changed a lot. He _______ not what he _______.
A. is, is B. was, was
C. is, was D. was, is
【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。
【分析】最佳答案选C,上文说"他"变化很大,即"他"现在不是过去的那个样子了,故第一空填is,第二空填 was(其实第二空也可用 used to be)。请看类例:
"What place is it?" "Haven't you found out we _____ back where we ______?"
A. were, had been B. have been, are
C. are, were D. are, had been
答案选C,We are back where we were 的意思是"我们(现在)又回到刚才来过的地方"。
7. He is very busy. I don't know if he _____ or not tomorrow.
A. come B. comes
C. will come D. is coming
【陷阱】此题容易误选B.认为 if 引导的是条件状语从句,从句谓语要用一般现在时表示将来意义。
【分析】其实,此题答案应选C,句中if引导的不是条件状语从句(即if≠如果),而是宾语从句(即if=是否),句意为"他很忙,我不知道明天他是否会来。"请看以下类似试题:
(1)I don't know if she _____, but if she ____ I will let you know.
A. comes, comes B. will come, will come
C. comes, will come D. will come, comes
答案选 D,第一个 if 引导的是宾语从句,第二个 if 引导的是条件状语从句。
(2)"When _____ he come?" "I don't know, but when he _____, I'll tell you."
A. does, comes B. will, will come
C. does, will come D. will, comes
答案选 D,第一个 when 疑问副词,用于引出一个特殊疑问句;第二个 when是从属连词,用于引导时间状语从句。
(3)"When he _____ is not known yet." "But when he ____, he will be warmly welcomed."
A. comes, comes B. will come, will come
C. comes, will come D. will come, comes
答案选 D,第一个 when 引导的是主语从句,第二个 when引导的是时间状语从句。
8. The bridge, which _____ 1688, needs repairing.
A. is dated from B. was dated from
C. dates from D. dated from
【陷阱】此题容易误选B或D,认为句中用了 1688 这个过去时间,所以应选过去时态,又因为 date from 不用于被动语态,所以只能选D.
【分析】其实此题的最佳答案应是C,因为 date from 的意思是"自某时起存在至今"(=have existed since),它通常用于一般现在时,而不用过去时态(尽管其后接的总是表示过去的时间)。如:
The church dates from 1176. 这座教堂是六世纪建的。
The castle dates from the 14th century. 这座城堡是14世纪建的。
但若所谈论的东西现在已不复存在,则可用一般过去时。如:
The church, which dated from the 13th century, was destroyed in an earthquake two years ago. 那座教堂是13世纪建成的,两年前在一次地震中被毁了。
注:与 date from 同义的 date back to 也有类似用法。
9. "You've left the light on." "Oh, so I have. _____ and turn it off."
A. I'll go B. I've gone
C. I go D. I'm going
【陷阱】容易误选D.
【分析】A和D两者均可表示将来,填入空格处似乎都可以。但实际上只有A是最佳的,因为根据上下文的语境来看,"我去把灯关掉"这一行为是说话人听了对方的话后临时想到的,而不是事先准备的。而按英语习惯:will 和 be going to后接动词原形均可表示意图,但意图有强弱之分,如果是事先考虑过的意图,要用 be going to;如果不是事先考虑过的,而是说话时刻才临时想到的意图,则用 will.比较:
"I've come out without any money." "Never mind, I will lend you some.""我出来没带钱。""没关系,我借给你。"(句中用will lend,表示"借"钱给对方是临时想到的,即听了对方的话后临时作出的反应)
I've bought a typewriter and I'm going to learn to type. 我买了台打字机,我想学打字。(句中用 be going to learn to type,表示说话人要学打字是事先准备的,并为此买了台打字机)

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